The functions of CAP superfamily proteins in mammalian fertility and disease.
Members of the cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPS), antigen 5 (Ag5) and pathogenesis-related 1 (Pr-1) (CAP) superfamily of proteins are discovered throughout the bacterial, fungal, plant and animal kingdoms. Though many CAP superfamily proteins stay poorly characterised, over the previous decade proof has amassed, which offers insights into the practical roles of those proteins in numerous processes, together with fertilization, immune defence and subversion, pathogen virulence, venom toxicology and most cancers biology.
The goal of this text is to summarize the present state of data on CAP superfamily proteins in mammalian fertility, organismal homeostasis and illness pathogenesis. The scientific literature search was undertaken through PubMed database on all articles revealed previous to November 2019.
Search phrases had been primarily based on following key phrases: ‘CAP superfamily’, ‘CRISP’, ‘Cysteine-rich secretory proteins‘, ‘Antigen 5’, ‘Pathogenesis-related 1’, ‘male fertility’, ‘CAP and CTL area containing’, ‘CRISPLD1’, ‘CRISPLD2’, ‘bacterial SCP’, ‘ion channel regulator’, ‘CatSper’, ‘PI15’, ‘PI16’, ‘CLEC’, ‘PRY proteins‘, ‘ASP proteins‘, ‘spermatogenesis’, ‘epididymal maturation’, ‘capacitation’ and ‘snake CRISP’. Along with that, reference lists of major and overview article had been reviewed for extra related publications.
On this overview, we talk about the breadth of data on CAP superfamily proteins with reference to their protein construction, organic capabilities and rising significance in replica, well being and illness. We talk about the evolution of CAP superfamily proteins from their in any other case unembellished prokaryotic predecessors into the multi-domain and neofunctionalized members present in eukaryotic organisms right this moment.
At the least partially due to the fast evolution of those proteins, many inconsistencies in nomenclature exist throughout the literature. As such, and partially by way of the usage of a most probability phylogenetic evaluation of the vertebrate CRISP subfamily, we’ve tried to make clear this confusion, thus permitting for a comparability of orthologous protein perform between species.
This framework additionally permits the prediction of practical relevance between species primarily based on sequence and structural conservation. This overview generates an image of important roles for CAP proteins in ion channel regulation, sterol and lipid binding and protease inhibition, and as ligands concerned within the induction of a number of mobile processes.